Biorefineries and chemical processes : design, integration and sustainability analysis / Jhuma Sadhukhan, Kok Siew Ng, Elias Martinez Hernandez.

By: Sadhukhan, Jhuma
Contributor(s): Ng, Kok Siew [coautor] | Hernandez, Elias Martinez [coautor]
Material type: TextText; Format: print Publisher: Chichester, West Sussex : Wiley, 2014Description: xlviii, 625 p. : ill. ; 25 cmISBN: 9781119990864 (hardback)Subject(s): Biomasa -- Refino | Productos químicos de la biomasa -- Innovaciones tecnológicas | Productos químicos de la biomasa -- Industria | Energía de biomasa
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Includes bibliographical references and index.

Preface xiii Acknowledgments xvii About the Authors xxi CompanionWebsite xxiii Nomenclature xxv I INTRODUCTION 1 1 Introduction 3 1.1 Fundamentals of the Biorefinery Concept 3 1.1.1 Biorefinery Principles 3 1.1.2 Biorefinery Types and Development 4 1.2 Biorefinery Features and Nomenclature 5 1.3 Biorefinery Feedstock: Biomass 7 1.3.1 Chemical Nature of Biorefinery Feedstocks 8 1.3.2 Feedstock Characterization 10 1.4 Processes and Platforms 12 1.5 Biorefinery Products 15 1.6 Optimization of Preprocessing and Fractionation for Bio Based Manufacturing 18 1.6.1 Background of Lignin 26 1.7 Electrochemistry Application in Biorefineries 31 1.8 Introduction to Energy and Water Systems 34 1.9 Evaluating Biorefinery Performances 36 1.9.1 Performance Indicators 36 1.9.2 Life Cycle Analysis 38 1.10 Chapters 38 1.11 Summary 38 References 39 II TOOLS 43 2 Economic Analysis 45 2.1 Introduction 45 2.2 General Economic Concepts and Terminology 46 2.2.1 Capital Cost and Battery Limits 46 2.2.2 Cost Index 46 2.2.3 Economies of Scale 47 2.2.4 Operating Cost 48 2.2.5 Cash Flows 49 2.2.6 Time Value of Money 49 2.2.7 Discounted Cash Flow Analysis and Net Present Value 50 2.2.8 Profitability Analysis 52 2.2.9 Learning Effect 53 2.3 Methodology 54 2.3.1 Capital Cost Estimation 54 2.3.2 Profitability Analysis 55 2.4 Cost Estimation and Correlation 55 2.4.1 Capital Cost 55 2.4.2 Operating Cost 58 2.5 Summary 59 2.6 Exercises 60 References 61 3 Heat Integration and Utility System Design 63 3.1 Introduction 63 3.2 Process Integration 64 3.3 Analysis of Heat Exchanger Network Using Pinch Technology 65 3.3.1 Data Extraction 66 3.3.2 Construction of Temperature--Enthalpy Profiles 69 3.3.3 Application of the Graphical Approach for Energy Recovery 76 3.4 Utility System 83 3.4.1 Components in Utility System 83 3.5 Conceptual Design of Heat Recovery System for Cogeneration 88 3.5.1 Conventional Approach 88 3.5.2 Heuristic Based Approach 88 3.6 Summary 91 References 91 4 Life Cycle Assessment 93 4.1 Life Cycle Thinking 93 4.2 Policy Context 96 4.3 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) 96 4.4 LCA: Goal and Scope Definition 100 4.5 LCA: Inventory Analysis 104 4.6 LCA: Impact Assessment 111 4.6.1 Global Warming Potential 114 4.6.2 Land Use 115 4.6.3 Resource Use 119 4.6.4 Ozone Layer Depletion 121 4.6.5 Acidification Potential 123 4.6.6 Photochemical Oxidant Creation Potential 126 4.6.7 Aquatic Ecotoxicity 127 4.6.8 Eutrophication Potential 127 4.6.9 Biodiversity 128 4.7 LCA: Interpretation 128 4.7.1 Stand-Alone LCA 128 4.7.2 Accounting LCA 129 4.7.3 Change Oriented LCA 129 4.7.4 Allocation Method 129 4.8 LCIA Methods 130 4.9 Future R&D Needs 145 References 145 5 Data Uncertainty and Multicriteria Analyses 147 5.1 Data Uncertainty Analysis 147 5.1.1 Dominance Analysis 148 5.1.2 Contribution Analysis 149 5.1.3 Scenario Analysis 151 5.1.4 Sensitivity Analysis 153 5.1.5 Monte Carlo Simulation 154 5.2 Multicriteria Analysis 159 5.2.1 Economic Value and Environmental Impact Analysis of Biorefinery Systems 160 5.2.2 Socioeconomic Analysis 163 5.3 Summary 165 References 165 6 Value Analysis 167 6.1 Value on Processing (VOP) and Cost of Production (COP) of Process Network Streams 168 6.2 Value Analysis Heuristics 172 6.2.1 Discounted Cash Flow Analysis 173 6.3 Stream Economic Profile 175 6.4 Concept of Boundary and Evaluation of Economic Margin of a Process Network 175 6.5 Stream Profitability Analysis 176 6.5.1 Value Analysis to Determine Necessary and Sufficient Condition for Streams to be Profitable or Nonprofitable 181 6.6 Summary 187 References 187 7 Combined Economic Value and Environmental Impact (EVEI) Analysis 189 7.1 Introduction 189 7.2 Equivalency Between Economic and Environmental Impact Concepts 190 7.3 Evaluation of Streams 196 7.4 Environmental Impact Profile 200 7.5 Product Economic Value and Environmental Impact (EVEI) Profile 201 7.6

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